The epigenetics of stress
Background: Although glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus play a vital role in the regulation of physiological and behavioural responses to stress, the regulation of receptor expression remains unclear. This work investigates the molecular mechanisms underpinning stress-induced changes in hippocampal GR mRNA levels in vivo. Methods: Male Wistar rats were killed either under baseline conditions or after forced swim stress (FSS; 15 min in 25°C water). Rat hippocampi were micro-dissected (for mRNA, microRNA, and DNA methylation analysis) or frozen whole (for chromatin immunoprecipitation). In an additional experiment, rats were pre-treated with RU486 (a GR antagonist) or vehicle. Results: FSS evoked a dentate gyrus-specific reduction in GR mRNA levels. This was related to an increased DNMT3a protein association with a discreet region of the Nr3c1 (GR gene) promoter, shown here to undergo increased DNA methylation after FSS. FSS also caused a time-dependent increase in the expression of miR-124a, a microRNA known to reduce GR mRNA expression, which was inversely correlated with a reduction in GR mRNA levels 30 min after FSS. FSS did not affect GR binding to a putative negative glucocorticoid response element within the Nr3c1 gene. Conclusions: Acute stress results in decreased GR mRNA expression specifically in the dentate gyrus. Our results indicate that a complex interplay of multiple molecular mechanisms – including increased DNA methylation of discrete CpG residues within the Nr3c1 gene, most likely facilitated by DNMT3a, and increased expression of miR-124a – could be responsible for these changes.
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